Guaido has thus far managed to avoid arrest, and the Supreme Court did not strip him of his legislative immunity, though the new investigation may signal that Maduro's socialist government is moving to take a more punitive approach.
Mr Maduro, meanwhile, gathered with troops and, in a message directed at the U.S., said he would not allow another Vietnam.
The Kremlin has lavished support on the Latin American country in recent years, making it one of the biggest recipients of Russian loans and investment and an outpost of Moscow's influence in a region dominated by the US.
US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo signed off on the order last week, which was then followed on Monday by US sanctions targeting Venezuela's state oil giant PDVSA, the cash-strapped government's main source of hard currency. In fact they are totally out of commission and have been importing their products from the United States, he observed.
There is a great deal of hard evidence that the plane exists and its flight was unprecedented, but not as much evidence about its intended goal - although Reuters observed there have been multiple reports of Russian military contractors flying into Venezuela to "beef up Maduro's security in the face of mass opposition protests".
It was feared that the USA sanctions would wreak more damage to the South American country - but for oil prices, which had ended 2018 on a sour note; they had peaked in October, but gained some ground in the first two weeks of this year, so some support looms.
Venezuela's President Nicolas Maduro holds a copy of the Venezuelan constitution while he speaks during a meeting with members of the Venezuelan diplomatic corp after their arrival from the United States, at the Miraflores Palace in Caracas, Venezuela January 28, 2019.
In 2015, Caracas and Washington relations hit rock bottom when former President Barack Obama issued an executive order, declaring Venezuela a "threat to USA national security" and ordered sanctions against seven Venezuelan officials.
"Hands off Venezuela", Maduro said forcefully in a direct message to Trump.
Lavrov welcomed the willingness of Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro to start the dialogue with the country's opposition, and called on the latter to "abandon the ultimatums and act independently".
The court is stacked with Maduro loyalists.
"Let me reiterate. There will be serious consequences for those who attempt to subvert democracy and harm Guaido", Bolton said on Twitter.
Speaking at the walkout, Guaido said he wasn't losing any sleep over the probe.
Guaido called on Venezuelans to mount a peaceful, two-hour, midday protest Wednesday "to demand that the armed forces side with the people".
The U.S. State Department said on Tuesday it had certified Guaido's authority to control certain assets held by U.S. -insured banks, including government and central bank accounts. "It belongs to the Venezuelan people".
On Monday, the USA hit Venezuela's state-owned oil company with potentially devastating economic sanctions that could cost the already distressed nation billions in revenue. Shortages in food staples and basic medicines are rampant and crime is widespread.
Mr Maduro called the sanctions "criminal" and vowed to challenge the United States in court.