Hasher Jallal Taheb, 21, of Cumming, was taken down Wednesday in an Federal Bureau of Investigation sting operation and charged with attempting to damage or destroy a building owned by the US.
"All potential threats have been neutralized and were under control from the inception of this case", U.S. Attorney Byung J. Taheb said he wanted to use "semi-automatic weapons, improvised explosive devices, an [shoulder-fired anti-armor weapon] and hand grenades" in his attack, according to the Federal Bureau of Investigation.
The FBI was contacted in March a year ago after receiving a tip Mr Taheb had become radicalised, changed his name and planned to travel overseas.
The FBI set up the sting after a local law enforcement agency said in March that it got a tip from someone who said Mr Taheb had become radicalised.
Taheb told the agent to acquire weapons and explosives for the White House attack. Documents show that an Federal Bureau of Investigation informant and an undercover cop partnered with Taheb, and made him believe they would participate in the attack.
It is unclear if Mr Taheb has a lawyer.
Chris Hacker, FBI special agent in charge of the Atlanta office, said the investigation took more than a year.
According to his arrest affidavit, Taheb obtained a "hand-drawn diagram of ground floor of the West Wing", which he showed to the undercover operative.
The other targets of the attack plot included the Washington Monument, the Lincoln Memorial and a "specific synagogue" that was not specified in the complaint beyond its being in the Washington metropolitan area.
"He said the group would fight to the end and make it a big bang", the charging document states, adding that he discussed having a "base" for his group, and from there, giving speeches "to motivate people" and show clips of "oppressed Muslims".
The FBI began monitoring Mr Taheb through an undercover agent last August, when they learned he had put his vehicle up for sale, allegedly to fund a trip to the Islamic State.
Lacking a passport, however, Taheb then chose to launch an attack closer to home.
Though Taheb expressed interest in attacking federal buildings, he did not know how to use the weapons he meant to buy, according to the criminal complaint.