The Liberal Democrat party member, Layla Moran, spoke for many when she told the BBC, "Brexit is a complete cluster shambles". "The time has now come for all of is in this House to make a decision, . a decision that each of us will have to justify and live with for many years to come".
Despite a last-ditch plea from the prime minister for legislators to give the deal "a second look", it faces deep opposition from both sides of the divide over U.K.'s place in the bloc.
The government and opposition parties ordered lawmakers to cancel all other plans to be on hand for the crucial vote.
Two others seek to limit the deal's most contentious section, an insurance policy known as the "backstop" that is created to prevent the reintroduction of border controls between the U.K.'s Northern Ireland and European Union member Ireland.
Assurances from European Union leaders that the backstop is intended as a temporary measure of last resort completely failed to win over many British skeptics, and the European Union is adamant that it will not renegotiate the 585-page withdrawal agreement.
Britain's Prime Minister Theresa May talks with UK Border Force officers as she visits their Command Centre during her visit to Terminal 5 at London Heathrow Airport in west London on December 19, 2018.
"While we do not want this to happen, the European Commission will continue its contingency work to help ensure the EU is fully prepared", he said. So far, May has refused publicly to speculate on a possible "Plan B".
But Mr Corbyn, Scottish National Party leader Ian Blackford and Tory backbencher Sir Edward Leigh opted not to move their amendments, leaving only one division on a proposal from Conservative MP John Baron for the United Kingdom to take unilateral powers to end controversial "backstop" arrangements.
An EU official, who asked not to be identified because of the developing situation, said that it was "Important that he is available and working in Brussels during the coming hours".
Business groups had appealed for lawmakers to back the deal to provide certainty about the future.
Mrs May said: "Tonight's vote tells us nothing about what it does support, nothing about how it intends to uphold people's decision".
"She is only attempting to reach out now to try to keep her failed deal alive after it has been so roundly rejected by parliament on behalf of the people of this country".
But more surprising still was the fact that the pound - the first financial responder to political events - gained in value after the vote - despite many, most, confidently predicting a crushing defeat would send it down. If that fails then Parliament and the government will have to find a way forward.
"That either means a general election or it means a people's vote - a second referendum in which the issues, the more complex issues around Brexit, are put to the people".
Over the past weeks, with growing fervor, May has warned Conservative Party members of Parliament that they gambled all if they voted down her half-in, half-out compromise plan.
Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn has now tabled a vote of no confidence in the government, which could trigger a general election.
Or, May's opposing Labour government could call for a vote of no confidence in May.
If MPs vote to back a no confidence motion, the government, or anyone else who can command a majority, would get 14 days to win a further confidence vote. Many pro-EU politicians want a choice between leaving on the proposed terms and staying in the European Union, but others say leaving without a deal should also be an option.
"The probability of a no deal has diminished while the chances of a delay in Article 50, a second referendum or even, at the margin, no Brexit at all, have all increased".
But although May is weakened, the executive has significant powers, especially during times of crisis, so it was unclear how parliament would be able to take control of Brexit.
Although EU policymakers have said there would probably be some flexibility about the March 29 deadline, any extension would have to be approved by leaders of all 27 remaining nations, and there is little appetite to do so if it seems that doing so would do little to resolve the debate in Britain.