"If a Russian is president of this organisation the Russian will be acting on the instructions of Vladimir Putin", said Browder, who used to support the president before becoming one of his most implacable global critics.
Two prominent Kremlin critics warned Tuesday that electing a high-placed Russian would undermine the worldwide law enforcement agency and politicize police co-operation across borders.
The Wall Street Journal reported that Putin spokesman Dmitry Peskov said during a conference call on Tuesday that the US senators' statement was "a kind of election interference, [in] the election held by this worldwide organization".
Prokopchuk is a former general in the Russian Interior Ministry. Human Rights Watch warned that Meng's election would "embolden and encourage abuses" in the Interpol system.
In 2003, Khodorkovsky was sentenced to 14 years in prison on charges of fraud, embezzlement, tax evasion and money laundering through his oil company, Yukos.
The group's chief, Jago Russell, expressed concern that a Russian official as Interpol president could stall or reverse those reforms and do potentially fatal damage to Interpol's reputation.
"Either countries back away from it and find other ways to co-operate, or Interpol fixes its system so that it can be trusted".
The U.S. seems committed to Interpol for now, but has pulled out of UNESCO and worldwide accords under President Donald Trump. The Interpol presidency is more of an oversight position, compared with the hands-on leadership role of the secretary-general.
In a joint statement, United States senators Marco Rubio, Roger Wicker, Jeanne Shaheen and Chris Coons said: "Interpol electing Major General Alexander Prokopchuk as its new President is akin to putting a fox in charge of a henhouse".
"This is probably a certain kind of interference in the electoral process of an worldwide organization", Kremlin spokesperson Dmitry Peskov told reporters on a conference call.
Browder was briefly detained by Spanish police in May on a Russian Interpol red notice that was then deemed invalid.
This is far from the first time that Interpol's votes are causing controversy. Amnesty International criticized "China's longstanding practice of trying to use Interpol to arrest dissidents and refugees overseas".
He is a current vice-president and the front-runner in a two-way race to replace Meng Hongwei of China, who went missing in September. Interpol members voted previous year to admit Palestine as a member, creating an uproar in Israel.