It's called Barnard's star and it's only six light-years from our sun - a stone's throw in a cosmic sense.
Teske said that there are hints that there might be another planet around Barnard's Star, although it's hard to determine if the signal that investigators saw is from the star itself or from another planet.
The planet, estimated to be at least 3.2 times more massive than Earth, was spotted circling Barnard's Star, a type of relatively cool and low-mass star called a red dwarf, about 6 light-years away from our solar system, comparatively close in cosmic terms.
In a major discovery, astronomers have located a so-called "super-Earth" orbiting the nearest single star to the sun. As for the possibility of life on Bernard's Star b, the planet is "way too cold" to sustain liquid water, Ribas says, and whether life may be frozen beneath an ocean is just speculation at this point.
Follow-up observations of Barnard's star are already happening at different observatories.
This makes it the second closest known exoplanet to us. Most exoplanets, including the thousands identified by NASA's recently retired Kepler space telescope, were found using the "transit" technique: looking for a periodic dip in starlight as a planet passes in front.
"We knew we would have to be patient".
Artist impression of what the surface of Barnard's Star B might be like. They also observed with a spectrograph at Spain's Calar Alto Observatory and added in archival data spanning 20 years from those and four other instruments, giving them a total of almost 800 measurements.
But the search for evidence of planets around this famous red dwarf star over the past 50 years has been unsuccessful, until now.
This discovery showcases the power of the radial velocity technique for detecting small planets. "The stars are known to show activity cycles, so this might be a cycle of stellar activity [rather than a planet]".
Barnard's star appears to move across the Earth's night sky faster than any other star.
An illustration of the relative distances to the nearest stars from our sun.
Among the instruments used were ESO's famous planet-hunting HARPS and UVES spectrographs.
Video: This video from the Institute of Space Studies of Catalonia/Science-Wave describes a newly detected candidate for a planet.
It's unlikely that there is life on this probable planet, given the distance from its star.
"We used observations from seven different instruments, spanning 20 years of measurements", Ignasi Ribas, the team's lead scientist (Institute of Space Studies of Catalonia and the Institute of Space Sciences, CSIC in Spain), said in a statement. "Hopefully, we got it right this time", said Guillem Anglada Escude from Queen Mary's School of Physics and Astronomy.
Astronomers take advantage of this effect to measure the changes in a star's velocity due to an orbiting exoplanet - with astounding accuracy.
However, the new data contain tentative hints of a second planet orbiting Barnard's Star even further out than the Super-Earth. A clear signal at a period of 233 days arose again and again.
These methods haven't always been available to astronomers searching for exoplanets.
Given how close the exoplanet is to our solar systems, future missions and telescopes should be able to provide more insight into the composition of the surface, and the atmosphere of the planet.
In the 1930s, Dutch-American astronomer Peter van de Kamp began a quest to study Barnard's star that lasted for most of his 93 years. While not yet strong enough to rule out a false detection, the researchers figured out what it would mean anyway: a Neptune-sized planet orbiting slightly closer than Jupiter orbits in our Solar System.