Exercises similar in scale have not been held since 1981 when the Zapad-81 drills that involved about 100,000 troops were held in the Soviet Union's Belarusian, Kiev and Baltic Military Districts and in the Baltic Sea.
The five-day military exercise known as the Vostok-2018 drills in Russia's eastern and central military districts has mobilized nearly a third of the country's soldiers, making it the largest Russian or Soviet military exercise since 1981, Russian Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu said in a statement last month.
The Chinese media touted the Chinese involvement in the maneuvers as the country's largest-ever dispatch of forces overseas for war games.
"Imagine 36,000 military vehicles moving at the same time: tanks, armoured personnel carriers, infantry fighting vehicles - and all of this, of course, in conditions as close to a combat situation as possible", Shoigu said.
North Atlantic Treaty Organisation spokesman Dylan White said the war games revealed "a more assertive Russia" which is "significantly increasing its defence budget and military presence".
Russian Federation has said it is showcasing methods developed during its military intervention in Syria, giving Chinese forces - which haven't fought in a war since 1979 - a glimpse of real combat skills.
"It will be unprecedented in terms of geographic scope and the strength of command and control centers and forces due to participate", defence minister Shoigu said.
The exercises will be held across nine training ranges and three seas: the Sea of Japan, the Bering Sea and the Sea of Okhotsk.
The main aim was to check the military's readiness to move troops large distances, to test how closely infantry and naval forces cooperated, and to flawless command and control procedures.
In addition to mobilizing 300,000 Russian troops, the exercise includes 1,000 aircraft and 36,000 military vehicles, South China Morning Post reported, which is the biggest show of force since Zapad-81 drills at the height of the Cold War.
At sea, the Russian fleet will deploy several frigates equipped with Kalibr missiles that have been used in Syria.
It fits into a pattern we have seen over some time: "a more assertive Russian Federation, significantly increasing its defence budget and its military presence".
The Kremlin spokesman, Dmitry Peskov, dismissed such concerns on Tuesday.
But Russia pivoted east towards China after the West sanctioned Moscow over its annexation of Ukraine's Crimea region in 2014 and trade links between the two, who share a land border over 4,200 km long, have blossomed since.
Moscow has increased the number of its large-scale military exercises in the Caucasus, the Baltic and the Arctic in recent years.
Relations between Moscow and Beijing have always been marked by mutual wariness with Russian nationalists warning of encroaching Chinese influence in the country's mineral-rich far east.